The missions The Apollo space program
Apollo is an American space program for human exploration of the Moon decided by American President John Fitzgerald Kennedy in 1961.
The objective of the…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/b/7/5/b7563ef6d1_50084103_apollo11.jpg” data-url=”https:/ /news.google.com/sciences/definitions/universe-apollo-3743/” data-more=”Read more”> and the interplanetary probes launched during the 1970s made it possible to broadly confirm a scenario elaborated in the preceding decades giving rise to planets and in a Recent studies tend to prove that brown dwarfs, even even smaller celestial objects called “planemos”, are also surrounded by a protoplanetary disk.” data-url=”https://news.google.com /sciences/definitions/universe-protoplanetary-disk-4444/” data-more=”Read the definition”> rich in and dust surrounding a young The Sun is the closest star to Earth, from which it is about 150 million kilometers away. The Sun is located 8.5 kparsecs from the center of the Milky Way. In star classification, the sun is a G2 type star.
The mass…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/d/9/1d9cd1d45f_50034577_eruption.jpg” data-url=”https://news. google.com/sciences/definitions/univers-soleil-3727/” data-more=”Read more”> about 4.56 billion years ago.
This scenario brings out and grows thelike the earth, or March by with a bombardment of and comets, traces of which can still be found in the form of lunar craters. The water in the oceans on Earth must come from this bombardment, but for decades the debate has continued regarding the exact nature of the small celestial bodies responsible for this contribution. In other words, does the water mainly come from or asteroids?
Futura has devoted many articles to this debate and today a new piece has just been brought to it via an article in
There are different families like:
organic matter, which constitutes living beings (animals or plants) or…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/7/0/e70ccaaf4a_91935_matiere. jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-matiere-15841/” data-more=”Read more”>reported to Earth at the end of 2020 by the Japanese probe . These samples come from (“Dragon Palace”, in Japanese), a member of the Apollo asteroid family, of type C because of composition close to the found on Earth, and which is located more than 300 million kilometers from our Planet.
Less than 900 meters in diameter, the study of its samples confirmed that it contained original material dating from the formation of theand which had been little altered despite traces of heating and water circulation but whose temperature must not have exceeded 30°C.
Hydrogen isotopes as cosmogonic tracers
Cosmochemists studying the samples ofexplain today that the analyzes of point out once again the relationship between the water of asteroids and that of the oceans on Earth.
To understand what it is, just remember that there are naturally two types of water, one, ordinary, is made of
Symbol: H Atomic number:…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/3/8/8/38807f95a1_50010101_equinoxprom-eit-big.jpg” data-url =”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-hydrogen-14495/” data-more=”Read more”> H with a single for core; the other, called heavy, is made of deuterium D atoms, so a nucleus with a proton and a It is not an elementary particle, any more than the proton, because it is composed of…” data- image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/5/5/15590279f6_71819_atome.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/ physics-neutron-3498/” data-more=”Read more”> .
A fraction of the water on Earth is made up of the so-called single covalent bond…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/d/0/e/d0e3dc7e1e_76472_molecule .jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-molecule-783/” data-more=”Read more”>containing deuterium instead of a hydrogen atom. We can thus define a D/H isotopic ratio which is a tracer of the origin of ocean water in cosmochemistry.
By comparing this relationship with that found inand comets, it is therefore possible to determine which were the parents of the water of the oceans. For years, the thesis of an origin of this water by of the young Earth has been abandoned and the pendulum has not stopped tilting alternately either on the side of the comets or on the side of the meteorites.
The study of meteorites on Earth – which mainly come from the main asteroid belt – has made it possible to establish that on average, the D/H ratio was of the order of 140whereas this ratio, when determined in certain comets, was between 150 and 300 ppm. As on Earth it is around 150 ppm, the cometary hypothesis has been disproved, or at the very least, comets would not be, by far, the main source of water on Earth.
Ryugu’s analyzes therefore support the asteroid hypothesis.
The Solar System is a laboratory for studying the formation of giant planets and the origin of Life that can be used in conjunction with the rest of the observable Universe for the same purpose. MOJO: Modeling the Origin of JOvian planets, i.e. modeling the origin of the Jovian planets, is a research project that has resulted in a series of videos presenting the theory of the origin of the Solar System and in particular of the gas giants by two specialists renowned, Alessandro Morbidelli and Sean Raymond. To obtain a fairly accurate French translation, click on the white rectangle at the bottom right. The English subtitles should then appear. Then click on the nut to the right of the rectangle, then on “Subtitles” and finally on “Translate automatically”. Choose “French” © Laurence Honnorat
#water #oceans #asteroids #study