Une flamme chaude, sur Terre. © Uwe Hennig, Adobe Stock

Astronauts played with fire in space

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[EN VIDÉO] Incredible Chemistry Experiments: Colored Flames
The fireworks. Their colors that light up the sky make our children’s eyes shine. And ours, let’s face it. Behind the magic, some very simple chemical reactions. Video explanations by Maëlle Mosser, doctor in chemistry at ENS de Lyon.

We handle it every day, or almost: the Oxidation reaction
Oxidation reactions can be slow, as in the case of the formation…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/d/c/6/dc6ace5000_125183_feu -combustion.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-fire-15905/” data-more=”Read more”>fire has been used by humans for over 400,000 years. But, in space, everything is different, and its behavior too. This is what researchers from the Nasa who created the project Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments, Where Acme, spread over four and a half years. Thus, since 2017, astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) experiment around this theme.

“An environment of microgravity allows researchers to explore the behavior of flames without the influence of gravityso that they can study the Theories established by physics apply within well-defined frameworks.
Physics…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/9/6/896f032c90_91933_physics-def.jpg” data-url=”https:// news.google.com/science/definitions/physics-physics-15839/” data-more=”Read more”>physical underlying structure and behavior of flames
said Dennis Stocker, Acme project scientist at Nasa. This knowledge can help designers and engineers here on Earth to develop furnaces, power plants, boilers and other systems of Heat: combustion, an exothermic reaction
The fuel is oxidized and the oxidizer is reduced. This reaction…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/5/f/9/5f91618d35_80925_combustion.jpg” data-url=”https://news. google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-combustion-3790/” data-more=”Read more”>combustion more efficient, less polluting and safer. »

In microgravity, the flames are spherical!

On the program, six experiments covering different themes, but with one thing in common: they generate scattering flamesor not premixed, i.e. when the combustible and Oxidizer, Fuel and Combustion
An oxidizer alone is not sufficient to cause combustion. So the…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/f/7/6/f76336f540_96680_comburant.jpg” data-url=”https://news. google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-comburant-445/” data-more=”Read more”>oxidizer, needed in addition to a heat source Physicists call heat thermal energy. In the international system, it is therefore measured in joules (J). Heat corresponds more precisely to a transfer…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7/3/5/735709801b_92578_chaleur.jpg” data-url=” https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-heat-15898/” data-more=”Read more”>heat for the fire to form, are separated before ignition. This is the case for candles, for example, where the fuel is wax, the oxidant the
Symbol: ON Atomic Number: 8 Electrons per Energy Level: 2.6 Atomic Mass: 15,999 u Most stable isotopes…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4 /7/d/47dc2cafaf_59586_rust-screw.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-oxygen-798/” data-more=”Read more”>oxygen surrounding, and the activation energy the flame from a lighter or a matches. “More than 1,500 flames were lit, more than three times the number originally plannedsaid Dennis Stocker. Several “firsts” have also been made, perhaps more particularly in the areas of cold and spherical flames. »

Already created in 2012 with combustibles liquids, this time the flames were made only with gaseous fuels. But the main result is the same: the flame takes on a spherical shape, very different from the one we usually know. In question, the absence of gravity: on Earth, hot air rises by convection because it is less dense, and the cold air descends by gravity and feeds the base of the flame. But these phenomena do not come into play on board the ISS. The products of combustion no longer descend by gravity, and then remain all around the flame: oxygen is brought in from all sides, provided movements enough air for the CO2 let him pass. In this case, the flame is maintained.

Six experiments to understand the dynamics of fire in microgravity

Altogether, these six experiments impossible to perform in a terrestrial laboratory have considerably improved the computer models that simulate the growth and theextinction flames in a microgravity environment. A fire created in space will be more stable, and therefore, more difficult to put out. It is for this purpose that NASA carried out these tests: prevent fires, and better understand the dynamics of fire in microgravity. Especially in spacecraft, where everything is confined and where an unmanaged fire quickly becomes catastrophic.

Among these tests, cold flames were carried out, an experiment that had already been carried out in 2012 on board the ISS. But also, the Burning Spleen function
The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ, that is, it participates in the immune response, but does not participate in the synthesis or maturation of immune cells.
The spleen also plays a role in maturation…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/c/9/ec99ba9c67_50035669_rate-dr.jpg” data- url=”https://news.google.com/health/definitions/biology-rate-7271/” data-more=”Read more”>Missed Simulator (BRE)
consisted of igniting different materials in a atmosphere at rest, then to observe the ignition and to carry out various extinguishing tests. Several fuels have been used, in different atmospheres, in conditions similar to those envisaged for future space exploration”.

During the s-Flame experiment, the fuel and the surrounding atmosphere were diluted with helium which replaced the nitrogen. As it is a better heat conductor than nitrogen, the size of the flame has increased significantly, but also its structure and its dynamics. Analyzes are underway to model it, and thus predict effective extinguishing methods. © Nasa

The case of the sooty flames

Other experiences like Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flame (CLD Flame), made it possible to study the sooty flamesthat is to say which generate In the smoke from wood fires, factories, or in the exhaust gases, soot is present at…” data-image=”https:// cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/c/e/e/ceea3dd55a_50035417_suie-cheminee-rasbak-wikimedia-cc-3.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planete /definitions/sustainable-development-soot-6721/” data-more=”Read more”>sootthis polluting blackish-looking substance that results from incomplete combustion of organic matter, nitrogenous matter, etc.
There are different families like:

organic matter, which constitutes living beings (animals or plants) or…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/7/0/e70ccaaf4a_91935_matiere. jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-matiere-15841/” data-more=”Read more”>materials carbonated. They found that ” microgravity soot flames are wider and taller than their normal gravity counterparts, and the concentration of soot can be as much as a factor of ten greater.

But that’s not all ! NASA explains that if the fuel is diluted with a gas inert, as of the General
Symbol: N Atomic number: 7 Electrons per energy level: 2.5 Atomic mass: 14.007 uIsotopes…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/5/7 /a/57a531d2d3_50012051_suprazote.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/tableau-periodique-elements-azote-13578/” data-more=”Read more”>nitrogenthen the soot disappears and the flame “may peel off the surface of the Burner Principle
The burner has an injector whose mission is to withstand very high temperatures. The fuel, which is in the burner, is then propelled…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/9/c/9/9c900ac467_50037249_3773871671-a15c85726e- z-02.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/house/definitions/house-burner-10554/” data-more=”Read more”>burner and appear as a light Biology
The cones are the color receptive elements of the retina. There are three types to capture radiation (or stimuli) corresponding to orange-red,…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2/3 /1/231492cdce_50034630_retine-documentation-flypix-info-02.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/health/definitions/medicine-cone-4127/” data-more=”Read more” >cone blue “.
In the case of extreme dilution, the flame even takes on the shape of a disc and then goes out. Finally, researchers have demonstrated that a The electric field is a concept that dates back to the work of Coulomb (1785), it is the force field associated with a unit electric charge. It derives from the electric potential.
The…” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-champ-electric-3880/” data-more=”Read more”>electric field makes it possible to reduce the emissions of diffusion flames: this thanks to monatomic and polyatomic ions, cations and anions
Ions can be monatomic, if they are made up of only one type of atom, or polyatomic…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal /2/d/3/2d3b08d8ec_100849_ion-definition.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-ion-861/” data-more=”Read more”>ions created as a result of combustion reactions, which are sensitive to it. Depending on the field applied, the shape of the flame can be modified, until the creation of soot is eliminated.

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